What To See On Hike Four

By Stephen D. Bowling

Sturgeon Creek

The mouth of Sturgeon Creek empties into the North Fork of the Kentucky River just downstream from the Heidelberg Bridge.

Our northbound hike begins at Virgil Todd Road and follows Sturgeon Creek to Heidelberg. Sturgeon Creek is one of the largest tributaries to the North Fork of the Kentucky River in Lee County, Kentucky. The stream is four miles from Beattyville on the Kentucky River and drains more than 106 square miles. During the earliest days of settlement, large schools of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) gathered at the confluence of the creek and the river in the warm waters each spring to spawn. Settlers gigged and seined the fish to supplement their diet of pork and wild game. The creek was also one of the earliest places in Lee County to be inhabited by Europeans who crossed the Appalachian mountains to the area.

Shovelnose Sturgeon. Source, IllDNR

Cressmont, Kentucky

The Turkey Foot Lumber Company moved its operation to Lee County from West Virginia in the early 1900s. The center for its operation in West Virginia was a community named Cressmont. When the timber company established its new Kentucky base of operation at Farmer’s Ridge, the new town applied for a post office with the name Turkey Foot, Kentucky. the request was denied because a Turkey Foot already existed in Scott County. The second application for a post office changed the name to Cressmont, Kentucky which was approved in 1913.

The company constructed 28 new houses, a grade school, tennis courts, a movie theatre, a baseball field, and a large clubhouse for company employees. The company store housed the post office and served more than 400 families that eventually inhabited the area. Cressmont became the first community in Lee County to have running water, electricity in every home, and modern toilet facilities. The Cressmont Post Office closed in 1948 when timbering operations ceased and the residents moved away to other jobs.

Turkey Foot Saw Mill

Lee County men at work at the Turkey Foot Lumber Company Saw Mill on Sturgeon Creek in 1920.

In 1912, the Turkey Foot Lumber Company purchased the rights to 37,000 acres of timberland on Sturgeon Creek in Lee County including all of the lands on Upper and Lower Sinking Creek. Logs were hauled from around the area to the main sawmill located in the large fields at Cressmont. The mill was 300 feet long and sixty feet wide and was three stories tall. A two hundred horsepower engine powered the belts and blades of the mill.

Engine Number 3 on the tracks near Cressmont, Kentucky.

More than 100 miles of standard gauge track stretched up and down Sturgeon Creek as trains brought logs to the mill and hauled away millions of board feet of sawn lumber. Cressmont Road, which you will hike, follows the original bed of the railroad tracks that served the area. A camping and recreation area would later be named for the Turkey Foot Lumber Company after the timber operations ceased and the Daniel Boone National Forest was established.

Lock and Dam #14

The lock was constructed in 1917 as part of the state’s efforts to make the Kentucky River more navigable. It is located 249 miles from the mouth of the Kentucky River. The shallow shoals and steep turns make navigation by barges and coal boats difficult. The proposed dams would hold water and raise the navigable pool between locks. The locks allowed vessels to pass from pool to pool as they made their way upstream.

A view of Lock and Dam #14 from the Heidelberg Bridge.

Several locks and dams were proposed to float coal and timber from the mountains to the markets in Lousiville and along the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Heidelberg was the last of the projects to be completed. No other locks were built upstream from Heidelberg. As the coal business slowed, the lock was no longer used and in 1999 it was permanently sealed. The Willow Lock and Dam (#13) is located about 8 miles down the Kentucky River from Heidelberg.

Heidelberg, Kentucky 41333

Heidelberg, a rural community in Lee County, Kentucky, grew and prospered during the era of “King Coal”. Located three miles west of the county seat of Beattyville, Heidelberg was settled in 1799 by a family of German immigrants who named the area after the city of their origin. Large farms on the flat river bottoms along the Kentucky River dominated this subsistence farming community until 1902.

The John Updike Grocery Store was one of the largest businesses in the area in its heyday. John Updike is seen on the porch of the store years after it closed.

In 1902, the Louisville & Nashville Railroad laid tracks through the area, and Heidelberg boomed. A post office was opened in 1904 and several stores including the Updike Grocery Store opened. The community remained a center of commercial activity until the decline in the coal and timber industries. Several companies loaded barges of coal at this point for transportation downriver to markets.  A community park has been established here to remember the city and its importance to the economy. 

Loading barges of coal under the Heidelberg Bridge for transport downriver to market.
The Heidelberg Post Office in 2011 shortly before it closed. If you look closely, you can see the old building during your hike.

St. Theresa Church

Source – Wikipedia

St. Theresa Church, west of Beattyville, Kentucky, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. It is a wood-frame church on a concrete block foundation. It was built in 1948 from materials of the Contrary Creek Settlement School Church, a previous church located about a mile away, which had been built in the 1920s. The new church was built to a different design. A kitchen and living quarters for Catholic nuns and for the circuit-riding priest were added in 1949.

Highway 399 sunrise along the Sheltowee Trace.

Conveniently Country

Hikers in 2021 sadly passed the Conveniently Country store with no rewards for their efforts.

For many Sheltowee Trace hikers, a stop at the Conveniently Country store was a welcomed break from the heat of the road walk and a chance for a cold drink and maybe a bologna sandwich. A stop provided hikers with the opportunity to meet many of the locals and to experience the kind hospitality of a rural county store. Sadly, the store does not have regular hours and may not be open. It still serves as an important landmark on Highway 399.

The Heidelberg “Death March” is hard but rewards hikers with beautiful views of the countryside.

Bear Track, Kentucky

The old Bear Track Grocery store.

Bear Track is a remote section of Lee County in the Highway 399 and Highway 52 area. A large mission school was once located here in this community before the Youth Haven Camp was constructed. The Bear Track Fire Department continues to use the popular bear silhouette on its sign. Spotting the bear sign at the Bear Track Fire Department means you are almost to your Saturday night camp at Lago Linda Campground.

Look for the bear and you are almost to camp.

Lago Linda Campground

In 1969, Doug and Linda Black purchased 410 acres in a remote section of Lee County as a weekend get-a-way. They were impressed and fell in love with the natural beauty of the area. In the 1990s, the Blacks opened their property to campers and those who loved the outdoors who found their way into Lee County.

The Breezy Point Cabin at Lago Linda Hideaway Resort.

The property was purchased by Larry and Katie Frederickson who have expanded an improved Lago Linda Hideaway. The Hideaway offers cabin, camping, trails, resupply, and wildlife viewing opportunities. It is located 16 miles from Beattyville and will be our camp for Saturday night.

Youth Haven Camp

Anne Marie Bethke (1880-1963).

Located on the hill above Highway 399 are the buildings of the Youth Haven Bible Camp. The camp is owned and operated by the Kentucky Mountain Mission. The camp grew from the dreams of Miss Annie Bethke. Bethke left her German-speaking family in Minnesota to attend the Bible Institute of Los Angeles in California. After conquering certain language difficulties, Miss Bethke graduated and came to Breathitt County, Kentucky in 1919, where she continued her Christian work until she retired.

To continue her work, the Kentucky Mountain Mission was incorporated in 1942. The Youth Haven Bible camp was established on 70 acres of property purchased in Lee County and has heated cabins, a dining room, indoor and outdoor chapels, horse and hiking trails, boating, swimming, fishing, and other activities for children and church retreats on a yearly schedule. The campus and the beauty of the facility cannot be seen from your hike on the road. Plan to come back for a visit when you can experience the campus of the Youth Haven Bible Camp.

The Kentucky Mountain Mission sign at the Youth Haven Bible Camp near Bear Track.

Oil Fields

As you hike along Highways 399 and 52, you will see remnants of a once-thriving oil industry in eastern Kentucky following the discovery oil deposits in the early 1900s. Old and abandoned rigs and pump heads dot the landscape and often are accompanied by a strong smell of petroleum. The oil and gas industry was once the largest employer of men and women in the area and accounted for almost three-quarters of the area’s economic activities. From here to the crossing of Interstate 75, hikers will see evidence of the oil and gas industry scattered throughout the fields and woods that we pass.

Sinking Creek

Crossing Big Sinking Creek- hopefully, the water will be low.

After turning off Highway 52 onto New Virginia Ridge Road, the trail makes its way down the hill to Big Sinking Creek. Sinking Creek is one of the natural beauties of this area and is a very picturesque section of the trail. It can also be one of the most difficult in wet conditions and the high water route should be taken during these times. After fording the creek near the foundations of a long destroyed bridge, hikers will carefully make their way over piles of limestone rocks that have filled the valley floor as you climb up Little Fork of Big Sinking Creek.

The “Limestone Crawl” section of Sinking Creek can be dangerous when the water is up or if the rocks are wet. Be careful!
A short video of the “Limestone Crawl” on Sinking Creek.

High on the hills above the trail are numerous arches in the limestone cliffs including the Sinking Creek Arch Complex which is home to four arches. The Sheltowee does pass within ten feet of the Little Sinking Cave Bridge and several natural springs that feed this stream. Many of the springs drain or “sink” back into the ground and from those, the creek got its name.

Little Sinking Cave Bridge is located just ten feet off the trail at the end of the “limestone crawl” section of Sinking Creek.

Greeley, Kentucky

Nothing is left of the Greeley, Kentucky community except a large white house that sits on the opposite side of the creek from the trail. The area was once filled with families who worked the oil fields and timber woods of the area. This home was built by John M. Combs about 1902. The Combs Cemetery and this old homeplace are all that remain. Named for Horace Greeley, the famed newspaper publisher and abolitionist, a post office was established at Greeley in 1900 and operated with a few interruptions until 1957. The general store and Masonic Lodge are both long gone from the area.

Mount Paran School

An example of a rural, mountain school, the Mount Paran Schoolhouse stands beside Highway 1036. Made of stone and native timbers harvested from the area and built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in the 1930s, the school served the children of the community for many years. In addition, the school was used by the community as a voting house and frequently as a church. Students were moved to Lee County High School and other schools when school consolidation started in the 1950s and the school was closed. The structure was saved and remodeled into a residence by the Hobbs family several years ago. Be ready- Mount Paran means a steep road ahead. They call it MOUNT Paran for a reason.

Hollerwood Park

Hollerwood Park draws hundreds of thousands of ATV and off-road enthusiasts to the area each year. The 2,500 acres of land that are included in the park present adventurous drivers with a wide variety of off-road trails and challenging rock climbs.

The property is an adventure located at the intersection of Powell, Wolfe, Lee, and Estill Counties and is owned by the Powell County Fiscal Court. Hollerwood Park offers ATV rentals, camping spots, and tours of the area. The office is located beside Highway 52 and offers a General Store with a variety of cold drinks and treats.

Rock climbing at Hollerwood Park. Source: Rock Star Performance Garage

Standing Rock

The community of Standing Rock sits at the intersection of Big Bend Road and Highway 52. This unincorporated community in Lee County and Wolfe Counties was a hub of oil exploration and production from the early 1900s through the 1990s.

Two sweaty hikers at the Standing Rock Church of Christ on a 90+ degree Sheltowee day.

Ashland Oil and the Sun Oil Company operated thousands of pumps in the area and many can be seen on display along Highway 1036 as you near the headquarters for Hollerwood Park. Several homes and the Standing Rock Church of Christ are all that remain of this one heavily populated community.

Wolfe and Lee County Line

As soon as you step off the blacktop of Highway 52 onto the gravel of Big Bend Road, you enter a new county- Wolfe County. You started your hike in Lee County by virtue of our reroute for Hike 4. Hikers will cross into the southwestern corner of Wolfe County as we head North. Wolfe County was created by an act of the Kentucky Legislature on March 5, 1860 and named for Nathaniel Wolfe. Many years of controversy ensued over the location of the county seat and Campton was finally chosen. Wolfe County is 223 square miles in total area and is home to 7,355 people in 2010.

A scene from the road walk near the Estill, Powell, and Wolfe County line.

Big Bend Road

Big Bend road runs 2.5 miles from Highway 52 to the edge of Natural Bridge State Park. The gravel road crosses back and forth over the Powell and Wolfe County border and skirts the Estill County line. This gravel road is a tough hike and passes several camping spots along the way as it follows Big Bend Ridge. A sharp turn takes hikers into the Natural Bridge State Park. The Park was expanded to include this area after a land purchase was completed by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission.

Tank Traps

To protect the land purchased by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, the Parks Service and the Forest Service installed a series of deep trenches and concrete pillars intended to keep vehicular traffic out to the area of the Narrows Road/Whites Branch area. Several groups protested the closing of the Narrows Road and the popular Pocket Wall climbing areas and the building of the trenches.

According to the Parks Service, the trenches and roadblocks are intended as “impassible tank traps” to impede ATV, horses, and motorcycle traffic, but they also present a difficult challenge for hikers. Be prepared to climb through and across these barriers as you make your way toward Natural Bridge.

The Narrows and Whites Branch Arch

Trail magic in 2019 on top of Whites Branch Arch.

The Narrows was the name given to a thin strip of exposed sandstone that caps the ridge between Whites Branch, Townsend Branch, and Crow Drive Creek. A natural arch has opened in the underlying layers of stone and is known as White’s Branch Arch. The Narrows was once the only arch in America that had an official roadway over the top of the opening. The Narrows Road was a popular offroad vehicle destination and was closed following the purchase of the property by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission. The arch can be accessed by following a short side trail over the side of the narrows and down a precarious rope descent. The 60-foot arch is beautiful but difficult to access.

The Narrows as photographed by toredrivergorge

Natural Bridge State Park

A postcard view from Natural Bridge at the turn of the 20th Century. The swinging bridge that the Sheltowee Trace uses in this area crosses on the left of the picture near the end of the train.

Natural Bridge is a 2,300-acre forested park and nature preserve with 22 miles of trails, a 60-acre lake, two campgrounds, lodging, and dining facilities. It is surrounded by the Daniel Boone National Forest and adjacent to the Red River Gorge National Geologic Area.

The Lexington & Eastern Tunnel is no longer accessible due to safety concerns but can be seen under the Hemlock Lodge from across the lake during our hike.

Natural Bridge State Park was established in 1926 and was one of Kentucky’s first four state parks.  Opened to tourists in 1895 as a resort created by the Lexington & Eastern Railroad, the park in Powell and Wolfe Counties covers more than 2,300 acres.  The bridge itself is a large sandstone shelter arch spanning nearly 80 feet and is 65 feet tall.  It technically is not a bridge as defined by geologic terms since no stream runs under its span. More than 500,000 visitors come to Natural Bridge to enjoy the trails and outdoor adventures a year.

Natural Bridge

Natural Bridge with fewer trees around on a postcard from about 1910.

Balanced Rock

One of the most popular sites in the Natural Bridge State Park is the balanced rock. The large, precariously perched rock is not the first balanced rock at the park. A larger more precarious boulder earned the name first but has been placed out of bounds for park visitors for safety reasons. This eroded sandstone pillar was given the name “Balanced Rock.”

An old postcard of the second Balanced Rock at Natural Bridge State Park.

Whittleton Branch and Arch

After Passing through the Whittelton Campground, the Sheltowee Trace follows a small stream known as Whittleton Branch for more than a mile and ends along KY 15 at the entrance to Tunnel Ridge Road. The trail is a connector between the many trails in the Red River Gorge and Natural Bridge State Park. Whittleton Branch Trail follows the grade of a logging railroad built in 1898 that ran from Natural Bridge to Chimney Top. Many signs of logging and railroad activity can be seen from Mountain Central Railway as you walk up Whittleton Branch.

Whittleton Arch

Whittleton Arch is recorded as the largest arch by mass in the Red River Gorge Geological Area. The arch is located off the Sheltowee Trace a short .25 mile hike and is well worth the short side trip.  

Bert T. Combs Mountain Parkway

The Sheltowee Trace passes over four lanes of the Bert T. Combs Mountain Parkway opened to traffic in the late 1960s. The “Road to Nowhere” currently runs 75.62 miles from near Winchester to Salyersville. This limited access highway opened as a toll road in 1963, but was freed of tolls in 1986 after the debt was canceled. The road was widened to four lanes and extended beginning in 2014. The Sheltowee Trace crossed this vital artery to the mountains at one location when hikers cross the bridge on Tunnel Ridge Road.

Pinch ‘Em Tight

Pinch-Em Tight Trailhead is one of eight major trailheads that is located on Tunnel Ridge Road near the border of Wolfe and Powell County.  The Sheltowee Trace passes through the edge of this parking area which is popular with hikers and climbers.  The parking area provides access to several trails and climbing routes along Tunnel Ridge and is the closest parking area to Whittleton Branch.

Enjoy your hike and take time to see the history, beauty, and heritage of the areas we pass through.

We look forward to great hikes with great people.

© 2022 Stephen D. Bowling


About sdbowling

Director of the Breathitt County Public Library and Heritage Center in Jackson, Kentucky.
This entry was posted in Hiker Challenge, Hiking, Kentucky River, Sheltowee National Recreation Trail and tagged , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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